Most ESCWA member countries have ratified international environmental agreements and have committed themselves to enhancing relevant governance structures, developing action plans and submitting reports on the state of the environment. The resulting sectoral approaches and fragmented policies have failed to define or address adequately the challenges that are specifically transboundary in nature. This study attempts to identify and tackle the major transboundary environmental threats in the ESCWA region. It addresses the current regional management mechanisms and policy structures, and compares them to those in place at a global level. The study draws from the experiences of other regions to generate recommendations for improving environmental management in the transboundary context.