This study takes a critical look at Sustainable Development Goal 10 – aimed to reduce inequality within and among countries – and proposes an innovative research approach to capture multidimensional inequalities . The paper suggests that a practical application of Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA) – which defines development as the amplification of people’s opportunities to lead a life they value – is likely to enhance the implementation of SDG-10. As a result of original fieldwork, the study examines the underlying inequalities experienced by three groups in Lebanon – persons with disabilities, educated youth and vulnerable women – and, through the use of radial diagrams, provides a stark visual representation of the gaps that remain to be narrowed between where people are with their lives and where they want to be. The innovative aspect of this research lies in the design of a survey that integrates Martha Nussbaum’s ‘Central Human Capabilities’ list with SDG-10 targets to identify such capability gaps in equality. This helps to better integrate the CA into the 2030 Agenda.