Statistics reveal that land transport is responsible for more than three quarters of the emissions by the transport sector worldwide. Consequently, this sector is considered to be one of the most important sectors to be focused on with regards to measures aimed at mitigating climate change, which was agreed by regional and international organizations. This study includes a presentation on energy consumption in the transport sector in general and in the ESCWA region in particular, and its implications on the environment and climate change. It reviews the possibilities and means to reduce energy consumption in the transport sector in order to reduce emissions and pollution, with a focus on the potential adoption of cleaner fuel in transport activities, particularly natural gas and biofuel, and its advantage as well as disadvantage in the ESCWA region. It also examines the opportunities provided by state-of-the art and most efficient technologies, in particular electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and fuel cells as well as information technology. The study reviews the policies and measures adopted to support the sustainable use of energy in the transport sector, as well as available funding sources to initiate projects, including specialized international and regional bodies active in this field, in addition to partnerships between public and private sectors. The study concludes with a set of conclusions used as a basis for a number of measures and policies that can be adopted by member countries to ensure the sustainable use of energy in the transport sector.