This study reviews a number of road safety issues in four ESCWA member countries, namely, Egypt, Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen. The first part presents the various legislation concerning road safety, the penalties provided for by the law, and different methods of dealing with traffic offences, including regulations applying a system of points to traffic offences. The second part considers driving licences, driving test regulations and requirements imposed on driving schools. The third part discusses a very important aspect of road safety, namely, traffic accident statistics, including methods used to collect, tabulate and analyse the data and the bodies entrusted with the collection process. The fourth part addresses the issue of education on and raising awareness of the importance of road safety issues, and at the role of non-governmental organizations in that respect. The study concludes with recommendations for improving road safety in the countries of the region.